The Frog Prince: The Frog King, or the Iron Heinrich

The Frog Prince: The Frog King, or the Iron Heinrich

Dr. Shimona Fogel

 

The Grimm Brothers' collection of fairytales (1812-1857) was not the first collection of its kind to have ever been published. Hundreds of years prior to its publication, other collections and tales had already been published in western civilization in several languages such as Italian, French, German and Yiddish. However, it is well known that the Grimm tales had gained unprecedented popularity and success in children's literature. They were translated into numerous languages, and new editions are still being published to this day.

It has been widely believed that the Grimm Brothers wandered around the German country-side, documenting folk tales as they were passed on by previous generations in order to publish their original versions. But Heinz Rölleke and, later, John Ellis shattered this wide-spread myth. Rölleke and, more notably, Ellis compared seven different editions published by the Grimm Brothers to parts of their handwritten original texts[1] and proved that the brothers had actively altered, re-written and made changes to them.[2]

The Frog Prince first appeared in the 1810 version referred to as Brentano's Inheritance and at the time was named The King's Daughter and the Enchanted Prince; Frog King. This tale did not open the collection in that original version. The Grimm Brothers decided to begin the collection with this tale later on, in its first published edition. At that point, they also changed its name to The Frog King or The Iron Heinrich (part of a type of tales featuring marriage to an animal groom, of which different versions had already existed in Indo-European culture). The opening lines in the Brentano's Inheritance version are not a proper opening for the entire collection: "The king's daughter went out to the forest and sat by a brisk well. She later played with a golden ball."[3]  These lines had evolved into a more appropriate opening for the collection by the story’s seventh edition: "In olden times, when wishing still did some good, there lived a king whose daughters were all beautiful, but the youngest was so beautiful that the sun itself, which, indeed, has seen so much, marveled every time it shone upon her face. Near the king's castle was a large, dark forest, and in this forest, beneath an old linden tree, there was a well. In the heat of the day the princess would go out into the forest and sit on the edge of the cool well. To pass the time she would take a golden ball, throw it into the air, and then catch it. It was her favorite toy."

1.Literary Interpretation:

The princess’s portrayal is in line with the tale’s general artistic interpretation. She[4] is described as the most beautiful girl in the whole world: "but the youngest was so beautiful that the sun itself, which, indeed, has seen so much, marveled every time it shone upon her face." In spite of this description, her beauty is not explicit or clear, but general, which enables different individual readers to identify with her. Upon analyzing the original manuscript, it has become clear that the princess's beauty as described in the tale was added later by the Grimm Brothers. In a wise literary choice, her immense beauty contrasts with the frog's ugliness and increases the tension between them. Nonetheless, the Grimm Brothers were known for enriching their texts with comparisons to Greek mythology and indeed, the difference between the princess and the frog echoes the legend of Amor and Psyche: [5]

Princess Psyche (psyche is the Greek word for soul) was so beautiful that even the sun itself was astonished by her beauty. Aphrodite envied Psyche so much that she wished to bestow her upon a hideous monster. At the same time, Amor fell in love with Psyche and built her a magnificent palace, where he often visited her at night. He told Psyche that terrible things would happen to her, were she to see his face. Her sisters, who grew jealous of Psyche’s wealth, told Psyche that her loved one must be a hideous dragon. One night, Psyche’s curiosity got the better of her and she lit an oil lamp. She was admiring Amor's heavenly beauty, when her hand suddenly slipped. A drop of boiling oil fell on his arm and the magical palace disappeared. Psyche found herself alone on a deserted rock. She successfully overcame several challenges until, eventfully, she was invited to join the other gods on Olympus to marry Amor, the god of love.         

Erich Neumann explains this legend as the development of the female soul into a harmonic and integrative spirit.

The comparison between the princess and Psyche intimates the princess’ change of heart and growth from a self-centered girl to a mature woman.

  • 1.1  Entering the Forest

The princess’s choice to enter the forest illustrates her desire to free herself from society’s conventions and rules. She deliberately gives up the palace’s protection in order to explore what real life has to offer. The Grimm Brothers described this forest as "large and dark." Therefore, her entrance into the forest also symbolizes the princess's desire to face reality’s unknown and dangerous aspects. She wishes to examine the depths of her soul and find meaning to her life (psychoanalysis links an entrance to a forest to entering the subconscious). The entrance also symbolizes recurrence in nature and the princess wishes to be a part of this recurrence. She aspires to grow and develop but also to build a deep and stable bond with a spouse. The forest represents a communal space that belongs to nobody. Everyone in it is equal, unlike in the palace that belongs to the princess's family and represents class society.

  • 1.2 The Well

The princess sits by a well in the forest. In western culture, a well represents the essence of womanhood: the womb of the mother goddess. A well with flowing water symbolizes unity between male and female.[6]

The bible also connects between a well, a beautiful woman and a perfect match made by god.  Some examples of patriarchs meeting their wives by a well:

1.2.1 In the Old Testament, Abraham orders his servant to find his son, Isaac, a wife from his family and homeland. God presented the servant with this chosen wife by the well: "He made the camels kneel down outside the city by the well of water… I am standing here by the spring of water, and the daughters of the townspeople are coming out to draw water…The girl was very fair to look at…She went down to the spring, filled up her jar, and returned…Once she finished giving him a drink, she ran again to the well to draw water, and drew water for all his camelsand answered, the thing comes from the Lord;" [7]

1.2.2 The meeting of Jacob and Rachel also takes place by a well. Jacob is described as "hairless" and "a quiet man, living in tents." Upon seeing Rachel, he is granted with the power to move a large, heavy stone from the well: "As he looked, he saw a well in the field… for out of that well the flocks were watered. The stone on the well’s mouth was large…Now when Jacob saw Rachel… Jacob went up and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock of his mother’s brother Laban… Then Jacob kissed Rachel…and Rachel was graceful and beautiful."[8]

1.2.3 Moses meets his wife Zipporah by a well: "He settled in the land of Midian, and sat down by a well. The priest of Midian had seven daughters. They came to draw water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock. But some shepherds came and drove them away. Moses got up and came to their defense and watered their flock… Why did you leave the man? Invite him to break bread. Moses agreed to stay with the man and he gave Moses his daughter Zipporah in marriage." [9]

 

On the one hand, in western culture the well symbolizes life, formation and rebirth. On the other, it is tied to sin. The water of the well can be pure and full of life but it can also be soiled and impure. In Christianity, the well represents both eternal life and the world with all its temptations. A dragon lies at the bottom of the well and symbolizes the devil and hell. In Judaism, the word "well" also has a negative meaning: unlike a modest woman, a prostitute is referred to as a "narrow well" because of her supposed role in leading an adulterer down the path to hell. [10]Wells were considered to be occupied by demons and earth spirits in European folklore, which is why the prince emerges from the well as a frog. The well was also known to be a gathering spot for individuals who possessed supernatural powers, like prophets and fortune tellers. [11]

Possible interpretations for the princess sitting next to the well are her will to find the perfect mate or her desire to embrace womanhood. It is also possible that she hoped to reveal what her future held, or that she wished to "be reborn". Contrary to her romantic aspirations, out of the well comes not a knight but a frog-shaped demon.

1.3 The Linden Tree – The Mythological Female Tree

The Grimm Brothers planted German symbols in their tales as part of a greater effort to establish German national identity and indeed, they added the old linden tree under which the princess sat to "The Frog Prince." The linden blossom is Prussia’s official state flower .[12]Linden trees are known for their great height (they can reach up to 35 meters) and the coarseness of their trunk (up to 3 meters). The diameter of the whole tree, including the leaves and branches, can be as wide as 120 meters. Linden trees live for hundreds of years and in central Europe today there are trees that are over a thousand years old. [13]The scent of the linden's flowers is somewhat sweet and intoxicating like perfume or a narcotic. The linden tree usually represents tenderness, pleasure and sweetness. It is therefore commonly mentioned in love stories and poems. It is considered the tree of love because of its heart-shaped leaves. There are many descriptions of lovers sitting under a linden tree and listening to the song of the nightingale (the bird of love). In the princess’s case, the linden tree symbolized her unique love and marital bliss.

According to ancient gothic belief, gods turn into trees. The linden tree was worshiped by women and believed to have been linked to fertility. Sacrifices were made in its honor by women hoping to conceive a child. According to another old German sentiment, a home and family’s piety is strongly connected to its faith in its linden tree[14]'The linden tree protected a family's longevity and the entire community. Linden trees were also believed to have had prophetic abilities.

In the roman myth of "Baucis and Philemon," the linden tree symbolizes the ideal love and eternal devotion between a man and a woman. It is also a symbol for pairing and marriage. [15]In the German epic poem that tells the story of Siegfried and Kriemhild, [16] the symbol of the linden has many meanings. On the one hand, the poem creates a connection between the linden tree and ideal love. On the other, the protagonist's "Achilles' heel" is created by a linden tree’s leaf. The female aspect of reality is responsible for the male's weakness, imperfection and mortality. Women are subsequently described in two ways: they can be beautiful, delicate, courteous and loving while at the same time bringing destruction upon everyone around them.

The linden tree also had a social function in Europe. Every village center had a linden tree which functioned as an important spot for gathering and communication. Wanderers used to tell villagers tales and news under the linden tree. Books and newspaper were scarce in illiterate societies. Therefore, tale telling was the sole method for preserving history and it occupied most of the villagers' spare time. [17]   The village's linden tree was an assembling spot for both the community and village elders.[18] The village's priest also gathered children under the linden tree for Sunday school and farmers often sat with their family for evening tea underneath it.

Nevertheless, the linden tree was also considered a symbol of the desired traits of a woman: beauty, charm, grace, simplicity, tenderness, delicateness and innocence. All these traits come together in the linden tree: its flowers are delicate; Its scent is sweet and its bark is flexible and is easy to bend.[19]

The linden tree was also related to dancing and immorality. Young girls and boys would dance folk dances under the village's linden tree. Because of the ample shade the tree provided, the area underneath it became a dance floor and place of happiness and drinking. During certain holidays and in weddings, guests sat under the linden tree and that is also where dancing took place. At the same time, we see numerous descriptions of central squares where a linden tree stood. Birds sang between its branches and the trees shed their leaves. Girls kissed under the tree in the summertime and in May they became pregnant. The linden tree as the tree of love and dance is described in folk tales as related to a girl’s loss of dignity. Non-virgins (who were considered prostitutes and unworthy of an honorable man) were auctioned under the linden tree in the second half of the nineteenth century[20]. Alternatively, a dance between the bride and groom under an old linden tree symbolizes the unity between them[21]. Goethe in "Faust" also creates a connection between the linden tree and anarchy and recklessness: "That’s how many a lying man, cheated his wife so!"[22]

Many poems and chants were written about the linden tree and it has a major role in European folk poetry.

 

How does the linden tree’s symbolism help understand "The Frog Prince"?

The young princess leaves the safety of the palace and is headed for the forest. She wishes to face the challenges of her womanhood. She goes to the well to find her mate. A life changing experience occurs when the princess leaves her social environment. She chooses to sit under the tree of love, under the old linden tree. By doing so, she expresses her will to be a part of an ideal partnership: a complete unity of partners in love and devotion ("in life and in death they were not divided"). The princess also wishes to obtain the ideal traits of a woman: delicateness, tenderness, innocence and grace. In German literature and poetry there are many descriptions of lovers sitting under the linden tree. It is therefore significant that the princess is sitting under the tree by herself.  Despite her will to face challenges, in the beginning of the relationship she is still immature.

 

1.4 The Golden Ball-

The princess brings along a golden ball and plays with it. The golden ball might symbolize her passions and selfishness. It might also represent her wish to be spoiled, to have all her desires fulfilled and to not take responsibility for what happens. According to Lutz Rohrich[23], the golden ball represents the princess's fantasy. She wants her ball back. She is unwilling to give up on her dreams. The lost ball can also be interpreted as her lack of will to leave her golden childhood behind and as a desire to continue to play. She thinks she is ready for marriage but she sees it as a game. The princess might be searching for an impossible ideal love and is trapped in her delusion of it. In the palace, the princess is surrounded by golden objects: she has a golden plate, a golden crown, golden necklaces and a golden ball. She is seeing reality through rose-tinted glasses and not as it really is. She therefore cannot handle a more complex reality. However, a dramatic change happens when she enters the forest: her golden ball falls to the ground and rolls into the water. It becomes dirty. When her fantasy meets reality, it is tainted and everything suddenly becomes repulsive. The princess needs a shake up in order to learn that life is not always golden.

 

The princess's visit to the old linden tree can also represent her wish to know the future. She sees the linden tree as a protective charm that protects her from misfortune and harm. The tree functions as her fortune teller. This visit is similar to a consultation with a wizard, or sacred graves. The young princess goes to the mythological female tree that is linked to fertility, not only to discover the identity of her future husband but also to pray that the linden tree will make her fertile.

At the same time, in her mind the linden tree represents only the aspect of love within marriage: falling in love, the sweet side of love, the euphoria and freedom of love. She desires to connect with her inner sensuality. However, when the princess finally meets a man who wants her, she is disgusted and does not achieve the euphoria she so desired. Instead of a knight in shining armor, she encounters a man who is willing to fulfill all her indulgences, but she perceives him to be no more than an amphibian and therefore rejects him. When she realizes that reality is nothing like her romantic expectations, she no longer feels obligated to behave like an ideal woman (delicate, tender and innocent). As soon as their first encounter she tells him: "Oh, it's you, old water-splasher" and thinks to herself: "What is this stupid frog trying to say? He just sits here in the water among his own kind, croaking. He cannot be a companion to a human being." [24]The princess accepts his offer, because at this point she does not want to grow up and wishes to continue to play. She does this despite the differences between them and her refusal to be his friend.

 

1.5 The Symbol of the Frog –

The frog has been affiliated with the devil because of its constant croaking and the fact that it was one of the ten biblical plagues of Egypt. Some see the frog as a symbol of a young man attempting to “jump” at opportunities and enjoy temporary pleasures. The frog also represents all material things. [25] In psychoanalysis, the frog is a symbol of sexual intercourse and male genitalia because of the similarity between the frog’s moistness and the stickiness of sperm. The frog's ability to become inflated when exited, reminds psychoanalysts of a penile erection. [26]It is also possible that the frog symbolizes sexual intercourse because its reproduction process is visible and not hidden within a womb. The interpretation that refers to the relationship between the princess and the frog as no more than sexual is valid, but diminishing.   Even when they first meet, the frog already tries to negotiate with the princess. She loses her golden ball and starts crying. The frog emerges from the water and mocks her: “What is the matter with you, princess? Your crying could make a stone feel sorry for you." When the frog observes the princess’s deep sorrow, he does not pity her but tries to negotiate the ball’s return: "I can help you, but what will you give me if I return your toy?" The frog uses this opportunity as a way to achieve his goals. He declares during their negotiation that he wants her love: he wants to sit by her table, to eat from her plate, to drink from her cup and to sleep in her bed. In return, the frog does not offer the princess his love but instead says: "I will be your companion and friend." He offers to fulfill all of her indulgences in exchange for her love and the opportunity to dominate her life. The princess wanted a man who will spoil her and she indeed receives a suitor that constantly lavishes her with attention. However, he never offers the princess his true love. He wishes to "conquer" her instead. Because of this, the princess sees him as a frog and despises him. Whenever she treats him like a frog, everyone around them sees him this way- even the frog himself. In order to conquer the princess, he is willing to fulfill all of her indulgences. If the relationship stays like this, he will always remain repulsive and she will always remain beautiful and spoiled. The princess will continue to find him disgusting as long as he thinks of himself as a frog. The frog tries to fulfill all of her desires but she is not interested in this type of relationship. In order to achieve communication, love and friendship they must be equal and not opposites. The princess realizes that she was wrong and did not know what she really wanted.

 

1.6 The Shake Up

Upon entering the princess's bedroom, the frog tells her: "make your bed so that we can go to sleep… Pick me up or I'll tell your father!" This taunting makes her lose her temper. She picks him up and throws him against the wall. "The shake up" is mutual and expresses teenage angst. The princess's violence is both verbal and physical: she calls him "disgusting" and throws him against the wall with all her might. This illustrates that she does not really want the frog to fulfill her indulgences and she refuses to obey her father.

In this scene, the princess is no longer an ideal woman as defined by the patriarchy. She is no longer the delicate, tender and obedient woman she is expected to be. Instead, she allows her built up anger to take over. At the same time, the frog also needs to be "shaken up." He needs to understand that she will not agree to this kind of relationship. From a clingy and groveling man who is willing to fulfill all the princess's whims, he becomes a man who is worthy of her and her equal. Throwing him "shakes him up." This shakeup could have hurt him badly, but it could also do him well. The shakeup causes both of them to change drastically. The princess transforms from a spoiled little girl to a mature woman. She begins to stand up for herself and refuses to accept everything that is expected of her. The frog turns into a prince: from a needy, groveling and rejected man he becomes a liberated and loving companion. The pain she inflicted brought him back to reality. He realizes that in order to be loved by her, he too needs to love her and by doing so allowing her to liberate him. When the princess starts thinking of him as a prince, he and everyone else sees him as one as well. His liberation is possible due to her refusal to compromise and her willingness to take responsibility for her actions. On the other hand, he comes to his senses and does not let her violence break him. From a spoiled and immature girl that disrespects her suitor and is capable of cruelty, the heroine becomes a woman who liberates her lover and therefore allows their joint life to begin. The hero of the tale also transforms drastically: from an underground creature attempting to conquer her, he turns into a man who climbs into his carriage with the princess and leads her to his kingdom.

1.7 The Iron Bands

After the hero becomes a prince and he and the princess take off in his carriage, the iron bands surrounding Heinrich's (his royal servant) heart breaks. The three iron bands represent the prison in which the prince was trapped: his emotional and social isolation. With the princess's help, he overcomes the iron bands affixed around his heart and is now capable of loving and being loved.

1.8 Dependence and Independence

In the beginning of the tale, the princess is dependent on her father. She is expected to listen to him and to follow his rules. The king is not driven by his daughter’s well-being, but by the importance of maintaining social norms. In fact, the father does not "see" her and does not check if a rejected and manipulative man (who teases her and threatens to tell her father if she doesn’t keep her promises) is worthy of her and makes her happy. In the king’s eyes, once the frog helped her in a time of trouble, she must tolerate him for the rest of her life, even if she finds him repulsive. Her act of violence leads to a loss of this dependence and growth towards being an independent woman, one who can liberate him.

In the beginning, the prince is dependent on a maternal figure, the "witch" who cursed him and made him submissive, and emotionally and socially detached. He desires a woman who will replace his mother. A woman who will love him, feed him, give him something to drink and play with him. The princess's act of violence sets him free, making him independent and liberated.

This tale describes the journey one has to go through: from being dependent and spoiled, having others take care of ones’ needs, through maturation, teenage angst (throwing the frog against the wall) and eventual independence.

  1. Psychological Interpretation:

According to Bruno Bettelheim, "On another level the story tells us that we cannot expect our first erotic encounters to be pleasant, for they are much too difficult and fraught with anxiety. But if we continue, despite temporary repugnance, to permit the other to become ever more intimate, then at some moment we will experience a happy shock of recognition when complete closeness reveals sexuality's true beauty. The various other tales in which the timing of events varies from the first night to three weeks all counsel patience: it takes time for closeness to turn into love."

Bettelheim claims that viewing sexual aspects of ourselves as animal-like has extremely pernicious consequences. Therefore, it must be explained to children that sex may seem disgustingly animal-like at first, but that once the right way is found to approach it, beauty will emerge from behind this repulsive appearance. Here the fairytale is psychologically sounder than much of modern conscious sex education. Modern sex education tries to teach us that sex is normal, enjoyable, even beautiful, and certainly necessary for the survival of man. But since it does not come from recognition that the child may find sex disgusting, and that this viewpoint has an important protective function for the child, modern sex education fails to carry conviction for him or her. The fairytale, by agreeing with the child that the frog is disgusting, gains the child's confidence and thus can create in him, or her the firm belief that, as the fairytale goes, in due time this disgusting frog will reveal itself as life's most charming companion. This message is delivered without ever directly mentioning anything sexual. [27] Moreover, the main characters in the tale can represent the different parts of the mind: the king represents conscience, the super-ego, morals and divine order. The princess represents the ego and conscious mind and the frog represents the deeply buried subconscious. The mind’s different parts represented by the characters are nominative to the characters' whereabouts: the king lives in the palace, at the top of a marble staircase. The frog lives in the bottom of a dark well. The princess comes down from the palace and plays with her golden ball by the well. The king never leaves the palace- he remains unchanged. He remains in his superior social status and continues to obey the moral imperative. The princess and the frog, however, both go through a transformation: they leave their primary location and go through an inner journey of the soul. The princess struggles to balance between her subconscious and super-ego.  Her choice to enter the forest symbolizes her will to enter her subconscious. However, she does not stop there: her golden ball falls down the well. Her desires and urges are at the bottom of her soul but she wishes to expose them to her conscious mind. She asks the frog to bring back her ball from the water and he is reborn in the process. The tale shows us what happens when we retrieve thoughts from our subconscious. Along with them we retrieve dirt, filth, secret desires and our greatest fears. In this state, the ego and the conscious mind go through a major shake up. There are versions of the tale in which the princess kisses the frog and turns him into a prince. But the kiss cannot initiate the transformation in this case because it is too early. The Grimm Brothers version illustrates an exit from the comfort zone to face a struggle that enables change and leads to liberation.

  1. Social Interpretation:

 

3.1 The Possibility of Social Mobility 

Since the middle ages, three social classes existed in Europe: nobles, priests and the "third class."  Social mobility was nonexistent. The lower and middle classes could not marry the noble class when the Grimm Brothers published their tales. The Grimm fairytales do not advocate an uprising against classes but they do lead a revolution in the way social mobility is viewed. In many Grimm Brothers tales, the king marries middle class women like Cinderella (Aschenputtel)  [28]or in Rumpelstiltskin the prince marries a women from the lower class and in The Golden Goose the princess marries a man from the lower class. In the Frog Prince the hero of the tale is in the lowest place possible, in the bottom of the well. He gradually climbs the social ladder with the princess’s help: he climbs from the well to the ground and continues by going up the palace stairs. He later sits at the royal table and at the princess's bed. In the end, he becomes a prince and returns to his kingdom as a king. The target audience of these tales was the middle class which identified with the idea of social mobility.

3.2 The Woman as the Initiator and Liberator

Gender views expressed in the Grimm Brothers tales do not advocate an uprising, either. In a society ruled by a conservative world-view and fixed gender stereotypes, the Grimm Brothers attempted to change the common outlook of women by portraying them as initiators, leaders, problem-solvers and liberators. The heroine in The Frog Prince chooses to enter the forest by herself and does not give in to what is expected of her- she refuses to marry the frog she finds disgusting. The princess is not submissive. She is willing to face the consequences of her actions. She rebels and throws the frog against the wall. By doing so she liberates both of them and they go through a metamorphosis. The man liberates the woman in a conservative point of view, but in this case- it is the woman who liberates the man.

  1. Summary:

'The Frog Prince' handles the subject of metamorphosis and describes different journeys that significantly change characters:

The heroine goes through a personal journey: from a self-centered girl she becomes a mature woman who leaves behind her the palace's protection in order to explore what real life has to offer and to find meaning. The hero of the tale also goes through a personal journey: from a clingy and groveling man he becomes a liberated and loving companion.

A journey for an ideal partnership: The tale shows us the stages in the development of a partnership: In the beginning, we are presented with the princess's romantic expectations. The princess wishes to find the perfect mate and sees only the aspects of falling in love and of the euphoria within marriage. But they are both too immature in the beginning of their relationship: the princess is selfish, childish and spoiled. She does not care about her partner, only for her own indulgences. The frog is utilitarian, manipulative and emotionally detached. He is looking for a mother rather than a wife. When their relationship reaches a point of crisis, they both require a shake up and go through major transformations. From depending on their parents, they find the way to be independent and free. Their relationship progresses to the next level and becomes a mutual love and friendship.

The princess’s sexual journey

The social class journey, which enables social mobility

The gender journey the princess goes through which presents women as initiators, leaders, problem-solvers and liberators.

And the Inner journey of the soul (represented by the frog for men and the princess for women) which is the struggle to balance between the Id and the super-ego. In order to achieve a higher level or spirituality or an ideal partnership, one must go through a painful crisis. The pain involved in growing up is an inseparable part of the process. However, acknowledging the pain and moving forward in spite of it is the first step to adulthood. This obstacle makes one aware of the need to step out of one's comfort zone and work hard to create an intimate and new relationship.

If the pain, disappointment and distress cause one to reflect upon oneself, to look inside, one allows oneself to be rebuilt.

"In the heart of every difficulty lies opportunity"- Albert Einstein

 

 

 

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  • *Grimm Jacob und Wilhelm(1996)[1857]. Kinder-und Hausmärchen, München: Artemis & Winkler
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  • *Lüthi Max (1975).  Das Volksmärchen als Dichtung – Ästhetik und Anthropologie, Köln: Eugen Diederichs  Verlag
  • *Mackensen Lutz (ed.) (1930). Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Märchens Berlin: Gruyter 
  • *Mannhardt Wilhelm (1875). Wald und Feldkulte, Berlin: Gebrüder Borntrager                                                                                                  
  • *Neumann Erich (1952). Apuleius, Amor und Psyche, ein Beitrag zur Seelischen Entwicklung des Weiblichen, Zurich: Rascher.

      

  • * Ranke Kurt (1977). Enzyklopädie des Märchen, Berlin: W. de Gruyter
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  • *Rölleke Heinz (1975). Die älteste Märchensammlung der Brüder Grimm – Synopse der Handschriftlichen  Urfassung von 1810  und der erstdrucke von 1812, Genève: Collogny.

·       Publius Ovidius Naso, מטמורפוזות, from roman: Solomon dikman, Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute

  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, פאוסט, frog german: Yaacov Cohen, Tel Aviv, Shoken, pages 51-52
  • Yaacov Nacht סמלי אישה במקורותינו העתיקים, בספרותינו החדשה ובספרות העמים,
  • , Tel Aviv, until the author's pupils and apprentices
  • The New Revised Standard Version Bible: Genesis, Exodus

©

2017

 

 

[1] "Brentano's Inheritance"- the original manuscript that the Grimm Brothers sent Brentano was found in a monastery in Ölenberg in 1920 (90 years after the publication of its first edition).

[2] Rölleke Heinz (1975). Die älteste Märchensammlung der Brüder Grimm –  Synopse der Handschriftlichen  Urfassung von 1810  und der erstdrucke von 1812, Genève: Collogny.

    Ellis John M. (1983). One Fairy Story Too Many; the Brothers Grimm and Their Tales, London & Chicago: Uni. of Chicago.                                                                         

[3] All translations within this essay are my own.

[4] Lüthi Max  (1975).  Das Volksmärchen als Dichtung – Ästhetik und Anthropologie, Köln: Eugen Diederichs  Verlag, S. 11-13.

[5] Neumann Erich (1952). Apuleius, Amor und  Psyche, ein Beitrag zur

      Seelischen Entwicklung des Weiblichen, Zurich: Rascher.

[6] Cooper J. C. (1978). An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols,

 London: Thames & Hudson, pp. 190

[7] Genesis 24

[8] Genesis 29

[9] Exodus 2, 15-20

[10] Yaacov Nacht סמלי אישה במקורותינו העתיקים, בספרותינו החדשה ובספרות העמים,

[11]A Ranke Kurt (1977). Enzyklopädie des Märchen, Berlin: W. de Gruyter s. 948

[11]B Mackensen Lutz (ed.) (1930). Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Märchens Berlin: Gruyter, S. 341-2.

[11]C Ferguson George (1961). Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, London:

Oxford, pp. 61 

[12] Funk & Wagnalls (1949). Standard Dictionary of Folklore–Mythology and       

      Legend, New York: Funk & Wagnalls, pp. 624.

[13] F. A. Brockhaus (1979). Der grosse Brockhaus. Wiesbaden: Brockhaus, Band 7 S. 157

[14] Mannhardt Wilhelm (1875). Wald und Feldkulte, Berlin: Gebrüder Borntrager, S. 49-53, 59-62.

 

[15] Publius Ovidius Naso, מטמורפוזות, from roman: Solomon dikman, Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute, book 8, pages 322-327, lines 620-621

 

[16] Guerber H. A. (1931) [1909]. Myths & Legends of the Middle Ages, London: G. Harrap, pp. 59-101.

[17]  Hartland Edwin Sidney (1900). Mythology & Folktales – their Relation &

    Interpretation, London: David Nutt, pp. 2.

[18] המילון הגרמני השלם של האחים גרים ערך "  עמ' 1032. ‘Linde’

[19] Lehner Ernst& Johanna (1960). Folklore & Symbolism of Flowers,

 Plants and Trees, N.Y.:Tudor. Pp. 69

[20] Mannhardt Wilhelm (1875). Wald und Feldkulte, Berlin: Gebrüder

Borntrager, S.  187-188

[21] שם. עמ' 449

[22] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, פאוסט, frog german: Yaacov Cohen, Tel Aviv, Shoken, pages 51-52

 

[23] Rohrich Lutz (1956). Märchen und Wirklichkeit, Wiesbaden: Steiner.

[24] Grimm Jacob und Wilhelm(1996)[1857]. Kinder-und Hausmärchen,

München: Artemis & Winkler. Pp. 39-40

[25] Ferguson George (1961) Signs and Symbols in Christian Art,  London

Oxford, pp.  16.

[26] Bettelheim Bruno (1975). The Use of  Enchantment  New York: Knopf  pp. 227

[27] Bettelheim Bruno (1975). The Use of Enchantment  New York: Knopf  pp. 226-228

[28] In Charles Perrault's version of the tale, Cinderella is a noble. In the Grimm brothers' version she is a merchant's daughter.

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